What is Ethernet?
Ethernet is networking define by IEEE (Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers) as the IEEE standard of 802.3. Ethernet can support almost every protocol and can operate with any networking equipment that adheres to the IEEE standard.
Why Ethernet is preferred?
Ethernet has survived as a major local area network because of the following characteristics:
1. It is easy to implement, manage, and understand.
2. It allows for low-cost network connections.
3. It allows various flexible topologies for network installation.
4. It guarantees successful interconnection and operation of standards complaint products, regardless of manufacturer.
It is consist of a basic three elements:
1. The physical medium used for carrying an Ethernet signal between various computers.
2. A set of medium access control rules embedded in each Ethernet interface. It allows multiple computers to access the Ethernet channel fairly.
3. An Ethernet frame consists of bits used to carry data over the system.
Ethernet works under the local area network covered by the CSMA/CD protocol. The data operation over the Ethernet cable is done in three data rate:
1. 10 Mbps- 10 Base-T Ethernet
2. 100 Mbps- fast Ethernet
3. 1000 Mbps- Gigabit Ethernet
Fast Ethernet (100 Mbps): these protocols are designed to work up to the data rate of 100 Mbps and it is compatible with standards. The traditional Ethernet can operate up to a few Mbps speed for example 10 Mbps if the user needs higher speed and data rate then Ethernet has been adopted.
Gigabit Ethernet (1000 Mbps): these protocols have traditional speeds up to 1000 Mbps. The main idea behind developing Gigabit Ethernet is to upgrade the data rate. The goal is to make it compatible with standards or fast Ethernet.
Topologies used for Ethernet connections:
The arrangements of different elements of the communication network are called topology. It is a physical or logical arrangement of devices that are being connected in Ethernet.
Bus topology: All stations and nodes in bus topology are connected with the same cable, .the message is sent from a single source and is received by various receiving nodes (computers or electronic devices). The single node is also called a broadcasting node as the message signal is broadcasted to all stations and nodes connected. The network follows unique address mapping, each device which are connected checks the address on the signal as it passes along the bus. This topology is easy to install and requires less cable. The implementation is easy and simple.
Star topology: All nodes and peripherals such as personal computers, printers, etc. are connected to a central unit called a server. The central connection point is like a hub or we can say as a switch. Each station or node is directly connected to the central network. This topology accommodates different wiring and is highly expensive.
Mesh topology: All node and peripherals have a dedicated point to point link to every other device or node. This type of arrangement is called complete because there is a special link between every device. Suppose you have to connect ‘n’ computer then you will require n*(n-1)/2 cables and each must have (n-1) Ethernet cards. The fault identification can be easily done and isolation between links does not incapacitate the entire system.
Ring topology: All nodes in ring topology are connected in a closed circle of cable. The transmitted message signal travel in-ring structural connection until it reaches the destination computer or device. Each and every device has exactly two neighbors for data transferring purposes. It is highly expensive.
Cables used in Ethernet connection:
There are five sorts of Ethernet cables available within the market ― Cat5, Cat5e, Cat6, Cat6a, and Cat7. Among all of them, Cat5 and Cat5e are most ordinarily used.
There are various transmission media used for communication in Ethernet:
Twisted pair cable:
The cable wire is twisted in pairs. Each pair of twisted wire consists of wire carrying positive data signals and negative data signals. The noise (unwanted interference) that appears on the positive or negative wire of pair would appear on other wire, this is because the wires are of opposite polarities which means they are 180 degrees out of phase. If in case noise appears on both the wire then it cancels or nullifies itself out at the receiving node. This cable is used where there is a requirement of a balanced line method of transmission.
There are two types of twisted pair cable:
1. Shielded twisted pair cable
2. Unshielded twisted pair cable
Shielded twisted pair cable: In this type of pair cable there are three-layer; jacket, shield, and twisted pair. The shield protects the pair wire from any environmental interference.
Unshielded twisted pair cable: These types of pair cables are preferably used for Ethernet where four twisted pair cable is used.
Co-axial cables consist of four parts; jacket, shield, insulator and center conductor. Generally, two conductors are used in which the inner conductor is inside the insulator with other conductor weaves around it providing a shield. The jacket is an insulating protective coat and it covers the outer conductor.
Optical fiber cables:
Now a day’s optical fiber cable is highly preferred as noise interference is very less and losses associated with these type of cable is also very less. Higher bandwidth with speed is a special characteristic of optical fiber. Optical fiber consists of thin fiber that can carry information at frequencies in the visible light spectrum.
The structure of the optical fiber is divided into three parts; jacket, core, and cladding. The refractive index of the core is more than the refractive index of the cladding. The phenomena used for data transmission is called total internal reflection. Total internal reflection means when the angle of incidence in the denser medium is more than a critical angle. The cladding protects the core and the jacket protects cladding from any interference. The source generates message in form of electromagnetic form that has to be converted into light. The process of converting light to an electrical signal is done on the receiving side.
Different types of Ethernet Cable Connector
Platinum Connector CAT6a CAT6 23AWG UTP Cable Connector
Ethernet Extender, RJ45 Coupler, Network Extender, RJ45 in-Line Coupler Connector
Micro Connectors 500ft Solid Shielded (STP) CAT6A Bulk ethernet cable
Soft Plastic Ethernet RJ45 Cable Connector Boots Cover Strain Relief Boots CAT5 CAT5E CAT6 CAT6E
Network tool kit, FUNRUI 7 in 1 Professional Ethernet Network LAN Kit RJ11 RJ45 Cat5e Cat6 Cat7 Wire Cable Tester Crimping Tool Crimper
UGREEN RJ45 Coupler, Line Coupler Cat7 Cat6 Cat5e coaxial cable Extender Adapter Female to Female
SGILE Network tool kit for Cat5/5e
Ethernet RJ45 Adapter -Shielded in-Line Coupler for Cat7/Cat6/Cat5e/cat5 ethernet cable Extender Connector
RJ45 Inline Coupler, AVACON 3 Pack Cat7 Cat6 Cat5e Ethernet Coupler Female to Female
SHD RJ45 Connectors RJ45 Crimp Ends 8P8C UTP Network Plug for CAT5 CAT5E CAT6 Stranded Cable Solid Crystal Head
RJ45 Cat5 Cat5e Pass-Through Connectors| EZ Crimp Connector UTP Network Unshielded Plug for Twisted Pair Solid Wire & Standard Cables
InstallerParts ethernet cable CAT6 Cable UTP Booted 15 FT
EZ RJ45 Cat6 Pass-Through Connectors, EZ Crimp Connector UTP Network Plug for Unshielded Twisted Pair Solid Wire & Standard Cables
Cat 6 ethernet cable – Flat Internet Network Lan patch cords – Solid Cat6 High-Speed Computer wire With clips& Snagless Rj45 Connectors for Router
UGREEN Ethernet Extension Cable Network Cat6 Extension Patch Cable RJ45 Cords Shielded Male to Female Connector
Vizag Network Ethernet Lan Cable F/F Female to Female RJ45 Coupler Straight Modular Inline Connector CAT 5 5E Cat5E Extender Plug Extension Joiner Adapter 8P8C
PLUSPOE RJ45 Coupler Ethernet Inline Connector Plugs for Cat5 Cat5e Cat6e Cat7 Cable
RJ45 Coupler, Network Coupler, Ethernet Connectors, Hielded in-Line Coupler for Cat7/Cat6/Cat5e/Cat5 ethernet cable Extender Connector
UGREEN RJ45 Coupler, Line Coupler Cat7 Cat6 Cat5e ethernet cable Extender Adapter Female to Female
CAT5E CAT6 RJ45 Ethernet Network Cable Strain Relief Boots Cable Connector Plug Cover
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